- Writing to Change the World: Teaching Social Justice through Writers Workshop
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Every person should be able benefit from the national cake depending on how much is available. This theory calls for meritocracy. This is relevant in that meritocracy is based on ability and talent rather than on class privilege or wealth. The allocation of rewards, positions and responsibilities is objective and upon the merit of an individual. By doing so the disadvantaged members of society should also benefit.
Inequalities must only occur in certain institutions and jobs that there is unequal opportunity for all to obtain. These inequalities must only occur in certain institutions and jobs that there is an equal opportunity for all to obtain. These inequalities include the distribution of income and wealth. Also inequalities are acceptable if they are used for the purpose of delegating different responsibilities in a chain of command. The other relevance is that, the theory is based on the foundation of justice is fairness.
Writing to Change the World: Teaching Social Justice through Writers Workshop
Fairness means free from bias or injustice or the ability to make judgments free from discrimination or dishonesty. According to Rawls, justice is what free and equal persons would agree to as basic terms of social cooperation in conditions that are fair for this purpose. Were there is justice there is peace free participation of individuals in society. This is to say the principles that free and rational persons concerned to further their own interests would accept in an initial position of equality as defining the fundamental terms of their association.
Justice, then, is fairness. So, argues Rawls, assume that we are to agree on these principles without knowing what our position in society will be or what our idea of the good is.
This theory is relevant in that, it advocates for social justice. This is relevant to the wellbeing of the people in that credit is able to go to those who deserve it. For example, most people who benefit from the bursary scheme are those who are capable of paying. The people it is intended to help do not even have access to it. Therefore, society craves for a time when the vulnerable will have a share of the national cake. Thus, Since all are similar situated and no one is able to design principles to favor his particular condition, the principles of justice are the result of a fair agreement or bargain.
6 Tips For Writing A Social Justice Essay | Human Rights Careers
Conclusion In conclusion, it should be noted that, Rawls theory is relevant in improving the wellbeing of the people in society. It is very practical in that it is marked by both conflicts between differing individual interests and an identity of shared interests.
Home Papers Social Justice Assignment. Want to know the price of your unique Paper? Get a Price. A limited time offer! Get custom essay sample written according to your requirements. In the late industrial revolution, progressive American legal scholars began to use the term more, particularly Louis Brandeis and Roscoe Pound. From the early 20th century it was also embedded in international law and institutions; the preamble to establish the International Labour Organization recalled that "universal and lasting peace can be established only if it is based upon social justice. In , the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action treats social justice as a purpose of human rights education.
Some authors such as Friedrich Hayek criticize the concept of social justice, arguing the lack of objective, accepted moral standard; and that while there is a legal definition of what is just and equitable "there is no test of what is socially unjust", and further that social justice is often used for the reallocation of resources based on an arbitrary standard which may in fact be inequitable or unjust.
The different concepts of justice , as discussed in ancient Western philosophy , were typically centered upon the community.
After the Renaissance and Reformation , the modern concept of social justice, as developing human potential, began to emerge through the work of a series of authors. Baruch Spinoza in On the Improvement of the Understanding contended that the one true aim of life should be to acquire "a human character much more stable than [one's] own", and to achieve this "pitch of perfection The chief good is that he should arrive, together with other individuals if possible, at the possession of the aforesaid character.
Although there is no certainty about the first use of the term "social justice", early sources can be found in Europe in the 18th century. Thomas Aquinas. He argued that rival capitalist and socialist theories, based on subjective Cartesian thinking, undermined the unity of society present in Thomistic metaphysics as neither were sufficiently concerned with moral philosophy. Writing in , the influential British philosopher and economist, John Stuart Mill stated in Utilitarianism his view that "Society should treat all equally well who have deserved equally well of it, that is, who have deserved equally well absolutely.
This is the highest abstract standard of social and distributive justice; towards which all institutions, and the efforts of all virtuous citizens, should be made in the utmost degree to converge. In the later 19th and early 20th century, social justice became an important theme in American political and legal philosophy, particularly in the work of John Dewey , Roscoe Pound and Louis Brandeis.
One of the prime concerns was the Lochner era decisions of the US Supreme Court to strike down legislation passed by state governments and the Federal government for social and economic improvement, such as the eight-hour day or the right to join a trade union. After the First World War, the founding document of the International Labour Organization took up the same terminology in its preamble, stating that "peace can be established only if it is based on social justice".
From this point, the discussion of social justice entered into mainstream legal and academic discourse. Then again in Divini Redepmtoris , the Church pointed out that the realisation of social justice relied on the promotion of the dignity of human person. In the late 20th century, a number of liberal and conservative thinkers, notably Friedrich von Hayek rejected the concept by stating that it did not mean anything, or meant too many things.
Even though the meaning of social justice varies, at least three common elements can be identified in the contemporary theories about it: a duty of the State to distribute certain vital means such as economic, social, and cultural rights , the protection of human dignity , and affirmative actions to promote equal opportunities for everybody.
An Inquiry-Based Research Essay: Assignment Sheet
Hunter Lewis ' work promoting natural healthcare and sustainable economies advocates for conservation as a key premise in social justice. His manifesto on sustainability ties the continued thriving of human life to real conditions, the environment supporting that life, and associates injustice with the detrimental effects of unintended consequences of human actions. Quoting classical Greek thinkers like Epicurus on the good of pursuing happiness, Hunter also cites ornithologist, naturalist, and philosopher Alexander Skutch in his book Moral Foundations:.
The common feature which unites the activities most consistently forbidden by the moral codes of civilized peoples is that by their very nature they cannot be both habitual and enduring, because they tend to destroy the conditions which make them possible. Pope Benedict XVI cites Teilhard de Chardin in a vision of the cosmos as a 'living host'  embracing an understanding of ecology that includes humanity's relationship to others, that pollution affects not just the natural world but interpersonal relations as well.
Cosmic harmony, justice and peace are closely interrelated:. If you want to cultivate peace, protect creation.
In The Quest for Cosmic Justice , Thomas Sowell writes that seeking utopia, while admirable, may have disastrous effects if done without strong consideration of the economic underpinnings that support contemporary society. Political philosopher John Rawls draws on the utilitarian insights of Bentham and Mill , the social contract ideas of John Locke , and the categorical imperative ideas of Kant.
His first statement of principle was made in A Theory of Justice where he proposed that, "Each person possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override. For this reason justice denies that the loss of freedom for some is made right by a greater good shared by others.
His views are definitively restated in Political Liberalism where society is seen "as a fair system of co-operation over time, from one generation to the next". All societies have a basic structure of social, economic, and political institutions, both formal and informal. In testing how well these elements fit and work together, Rawls based a key test of legitimacy on the theories of social contract.
To determine whether any particular system of collectively enforced social arrangements is legitimate, he argued that one must look for agreement by the people who are subject to it, but not necessarily to an objective notion of justice based on coherent ideological grounding. Obviously, not every citizen can be asked to participate in a poll to determine his or her consent to every proposal in which some degree of coercion is involved, so one has to assume that all citizens are reasonable.
Rawls constructed an argument for a two-stage process to determine a citizen's hypothetical agreement:. This applies to one person who represents a small group e. Governments that fail to provide for welfare of their citizens according to the principles of justice are not legitimate. To emphasise the general principle that justice should rise from the people and not be dictated by the law-making powers of governments, Rawls asserted that, "There is But this presumption creates no special priority for any particular liberty.
According to Rawls, the basic liberties that every good society should guarantee are:. Thomas Pogge 's arguments pertain to a standard of social justice that creates human rights deficits. He assigns responsibility to those who actively cooperate in designing or imposing the social institution, that the order is foreseeable as harming the global poor and is reasonably avoidable.
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Pogge argues that social institutions have a negative duty to not harm the poor. Pogge speaks of "institutional cosmopolitanism" and assigns responsibility to institutional schemes  for deficits of human rights. An example given is slavery and third parties. A third party should not recognize or enforce slavery. The institutional order should be held responsible only for deprivations of human rights that it establishes or authorizes. The current institutional design, he says, systematically harms developing economies by enabling corporate tax evasion,  illicit financial flows, corruption, trafficking of people and weapons.
Joshua Cohen disputes his claims based on the fact that some poor countries have done well with the current institutional design. The term "social justice" was seen by the U. At the initiative of the Soviet Union, and with the support of developing countries, the term was used in the Declaration on Social Progress and Development, adopted in The same document reports, "From the comprehensive global perspective shaped by the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights , neglect of the pursuit of social justice in all its dimensions translates into de facto acceptance of a future marred by violence, repression and chaos.
The same UN document offers a concise history: "[T]he notion of social justice is relatively new. The concept first surfaced in Western thought and political language in the wake of the industrial revolution and the parallel development of the socialist doctrine. It emerged as an expression of protest against what was perceived as the capitalist exploitation of labour and as a focal point for the development of measures to improve the human condition.
It was born as a revolutionary slogan embodying the ideals of progress and fraternity. Following the revolutions that shook Europe in the mids, social justice became a rallying cry for progressive thinkers and political activists By the mid-twentieth century, the concept of social justice had become central to the ideologies and programmes of virtually all the leftist and centrist political parties around the world From its founding, Methodism was a Christian social justice movement.
Under John Wesley 's direction, Methodists became leaders in many social justice issues of the day, including the prison reform and abolition movements. Wesley himself was among the first to preach for slaves rights attracting significant opposition. Today, social justice plays a major role in the United Methodist Church.